If "Power My House" means to reach net-zero electrical utility bill, the necessary number of panels can be calculated based on annual usage. A generic number of panels can be determined for an "average" home in the US, or a more specific answer can be determined for your home. Another approach is to determine how much solar energy you can produce. The later is a simple question to answer based on your home's available sun facing roof space.
The commercial solar cells available today probably represent the state of the art for years to come. Good solar panels composed of monocrystalline silicon cells generate about 100 milliwatts per square inch (6.45 square cm). Commercial panels come in a variety of sizes, 100 watts and up; however, the power generated per square inch remains about 100 milliwatts. Number of panels required can decrease, but not the area.
How much electricity does an average 2-story 3-bedroom house use per day, per month or per year. The US Energy Information Agency has estimated that the average US home uses 8,900 Kwh (kilowatt hours) per year or about 24 Kwh per day. If this average home is in a climate that will produce an average of 6 hours of sunlight for maximum power generation, each square inch of optimally oriented panels can produce 600 milliwatts per day.
Consequently, about 40,000 square inches (24000 watts per day / 0.6 watt hours per inch per day) or 278 square feet of solar paneling would meet household need. If purchasing a 100-watt panel measuring about 6 square feet, an average home would require 46 panels.
These calculations are for a fictional system but serve as a guideline. Your energy requirements may be substantially more, or less, than the average value used above. If your goal is to reduce your electricity bill to zero, you simply need to know your homes normal needs to tell you if it is possible and practical.
Electrical company invoices often show not only current months usage, but previous months as well. On request, the company may be able to provide a 12-month total. Alternately, one can take meter readings each day over a week or even a month to include a few weekends when power use is typically higher.
Since usage typically is seasonal, this should be taken into account. For most of the US, winter usually represents the highest period of usage; however, in some areas of the country summers that require maximum use of AC may represent peak usage.
For example, if your energy bills or meter readings show that your yearly usage is 12000 Kwh per year, a solar power system would require a 63-panel array (47 x 12000/8900 = 63) of 100-watt panels. Roof space required would be 375 square feet.
Source by Peter David Wendt
In these trying economic times, people are doing their best to stretch their dollars as far as they possibly can. If that means buying food in bulk or clipping coupons or eating out a lot less, families are choosing the thrifty alternative.
When it comes to business, one of the most important things a seller must know is how to buy and sell wholesale products. Really, if you can not locate wholesale goods, then it will be extremely difficult to make a profit selling these goods.
Where to start?
The first thing you have to do is take a look at your state's laws with regard to operating a business. You will need to know if your state requires a tax ID number or a reseller's license.
Then you will need to scour the internet for wholesale sellers. This is the part of the process that requires the most patience and attention to detail. Oftentimes, when you are looking for wholesale goods, you will encounter sites that ask you to pay membership fees or ones require you to purchase a certain number of items. These sites should be avoided at all costs.
Really, we can not impress upon you enough how careful you should be when buying goods on the internet, especially from foreign companies that are offering prices that seem too good to be true.
Your best bet is to purchase a small quantity of goods and see how they sell and if your buyers are satisfied. Remember, most of these companies will not offer you a guarantee or even accept a return, which means that if you make the wrong choice, you will likely lose your initial investment.
As we mentioned, when you locate a wholesale that you believe is trustworthy, you should only purchase a small number of items. Although it is an axiom of wholesale selling that the more you buy the more you save, on your first few purchases it pays to be chary. Sure, it may cost you a few dollars, but it will not cost you everything.
Where to Sell
The most popular place to sell wholesale goods is on auction sites like eBay and uBid. These sites offer sellers the ability to list and sell as many items as they choose for relatively small fees; fees must be nearly monitored if you want to make any money selling wholesale goods.
That is why all successful wholesale sellers are meticulous by nature and keep track of each and every dime, every nickel. Because the fact is that the margins for wholesale selling are razor thin, and you should only expect to make money if you can increase your volume and sell a lot of products.
It is hard work, but if you can keep track of every penny, it is possible to make money selling wholesale goods online.
One great thing about selling wholesale items on auction sites it that the more glowing reviews or feedback scores you receive, the easier it will be to sell your products. It is even possible to significantly increase your margins.
Source by Craig Dove
Wholesale cowboy hats reflect uniformity. They are available directly from the manufacturer. Wholesale cowboy hats are economic and are offered in a wide variety of choices.
Wholesale cowboy hats are preferred in group occasions such as wedding, school celebrations, theme parties, etc. The theme cowboy hats are usually cheap and non durable, they are made of materials such as plastic, paper etc.
Wholesale cowboy hats offer opportunity for custom design. Most of the companies provide facility to include the customer preferences in the design, pattern, color and material of the product. The companies suggest the available options in their catalog and the customer can choose from it. The suggestions in the sweat band and side chain are also considered in the design.
Wholesale cowboy hats provide the advantage of better pricing. They are cheaper than the retail prices. They also include some offers such as free shipping, few extra caps for free, free accessories etc. some companies include hat care products in the wholesale delivery. Wholesale orders also avoid the tension of damage in shipping since it is the responsibility of the company.
Wholesale cow boy hats require a minimum order number. Cowboy hats are usually offered in packages of a dozen. Half a dozen packages are also available. Usually orders below the minimum number are returned by the wholesalers. Some redirect these orders to their retail shops. The customer has to visit the retail shop in such cases. Wholesale deals will take more time since the shipping will be from distant places.
Wholesale cowboy hats can be purchased directly from the Internet sites of the manufacturers. Online stores offer wholesale deals of multiple brands. Western Stores, Oriental Trading Company, CenturyNovelty.com etc are some of the stores offering wholesale deals. The toll free numbers can also be used for direct ordering. The yellow pages, directories and Internet can be referred to find out wholesale dealers in cowboy hats.
Source by Jason Gluckman
One of the most important factors in injury prevention is warming up and cooling down, and should not be neglected.
Warming up refers to a preparatory phase at the beginning of an exercise session. Warming up generally involves a period of low-impact exercise regimes which prepare the body for the more strenuous aspects of the sporting activity. Warming up is an important aspect of exercise in reducing the risk of injury that would possibly happen if over stretching occurred, without the person being physically warmed up and prepared for the exercise.
Cooling down refers to a short period at the end of an exercise session. The cooling down phase, again, tends to involve a short period of low-impact exercise which gradually returns the body to its ‘resting state’. The cooling down phase is believed to reduce the risk of muscular soreness which may occur the day after an exercise session, and reduce the risk of fainting or collapse after such a session.
The Warming Up Session
An exercise session should always commence with a period of warm up. In some cases it may take the form of a series of specially designed preparatory exercise, whilst in other sessions it will simply involve performing the activity at a low density before increasing the intensity to the desired level. The warming up period is important for the following reasons:
- It gets the body ready for the physcal exertion that follows. This optimises the physical condition, enabling the body to cope more easily with the activity. It also enables the athlete to get the most benefit from the session.
- If the warm-up session has specific movements relating to the sporting activity the muscles can be re-educated in preparation for the coming activities.
- It reduces the risk of injury (cold muscles do not stretch very easily) and it reduces the risk of premature fatigue which can occur if the cardiovascular system is unprepared for strenuous activity.
- It prepares cardiac function for increased activity and reduces the risk of stress being placed on the heart.
A typical warm-up may involve some ‘loosening exercises’ followed by a few minutes of low-impact aerobic activity and then a series of stretching exercises. This may last for approximately five to fifteen minutes depending upon the intensity of the session which follows. Loosening exercises at the start of the warm up may include activities such as ‘stretching’ and ‘running on the spot’. These are gentle activities which begin to prepare the body for exercise and are especially important if the athlete has been inactive for a while.
The aerobic exercise may involve activities such as cycling on an exercise cycle. This has the effect of increasing the heart rate, diverting blood to the exercising muscles and raising the overall temperature of the muscles.
Stretching exercises provide the final phase of warm up and ensure that the muscles and tendons are prepared for the exercise. An important reason for stretching exercises is to prevent the muscles and tendons from being overstretched during the session. Such a warm up will also prepare the joints for physical activity.
The Effects of Warm Up on the Body are:
- Cold muscle, tendons and connectinve tissue do not stretch very easily. Stretching without a warm-up is therefore unlikely to produce the best effects. Warming up also relaxes the body and muscle which further allows them to be stretched effectively. It is also believed that cold muscles and tendons are more prone to damage since they are more likely to tear when cold.
- A warm-up increases the heart rate gradually, and aerobic exercise prepares the heart and cardiovascular system, together with the muscles, gradually, for exercise.
- A warm-up also causes the blood to be diverted to the exercising muscles. This is achieved by getting the blood vessels that supply the muscles being used, to dilate. This extra blood is diverted from areas of the body not as important for exercising, such as the gut.
- Exercising, without warming up, may cause the muscles to work without an adequate oxygen supply. This forces them to use anaerobic processes to supplement their production of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). As a consequence, lactic acid accumulates and the muscles may become prematurely fatigued.
A warm-up increases the temperature of the body. This increase in temperature facilitates and speeds up many of the processes associated with exercise metabolism. It increases the rate of nerve impulse transmission, the rate of oxygen delivery to the muscles and the speed of the reactions associated with the production of ATP. Therefore, in this context, a warm up may be said to optimise the condition of the body.
A cool-down involves a short period at the end of an exercise session during which the physical activity of the body is gradually reduced to almost its resting level. A cool-down therefore often involves a period of low-impact aerobic exercise which is gradually reduced, followed by a few gentle stretching exercises. This has a number of effects.
The gentle aerobic activity helps to get rid of any metabolic waste products which may have accumulated during the exercise session. The benefits of an active recovery are believed to be related to the muscles continuing to receive a more extensive supply of oxygenated blood, which will also assist with the removal of metabolic waste products.
During exercise the blood is being pumped around the body by the action of the heart. However, the blood is assisted in its return to the heart via the venous system and muscular contraction. If an athlete stops exercising suddenly, the heart continues to beat fast, sending blood around the body, but, because the exercise has ceased, the blood is no longer assisted in its return to the heart. It is suggested that this is one of the reasons why people sometimes feel faint after exercise. During a cool-down, the heart rate is gradually lowered to its resting level and the venous return continues to be assisted by the actively contracting muscles, thereby preventing this problem.
After exercising, and following the cool-down period, the athlete’s heart will still need a period of time to settle back down to its full resting rate but should be within 30 beats of what it was before the exercise session started. This will, of course, be influenced by the overall physical condition of the individual. It may also be influenced by the content of the session, with more demanding sessions requiring a more extensive cool-down. The cooling down period also provides an opportunity for the inclusion of additional stretching exercises, which may be desirable especially if they were not included as part of the main session. The inclusion of stretching exercises within the cool-down period not only helps to gradually lower the activity level of the body at the end of the session, but it may also prevent stiffness the following day.
The cool-down period is also likely to take place when the body is warm, making the muscles more receptive to stretching. The most effective stretching can therefore be performed at this time.
Source by Stephen Gareth Carter
Any copier service technician that a majority of their service calls are due to paper jams. You may not realize it, but the type of paper you put into your copier or printer is very important. In fact, using low quality paper in your high-end laser printer can have disastrous (and expensive) results. Knowing which kind of paper you need for your specific copy machine or printer will help you keep your office running smoothly without having to stop production due to a malfunctioning copier, printer or fax machine.
Walking into any office supply store, you'll notice the many different types of paper available to you. Some of the paper is very expensive, while some paper may be sold in bulk quantities for a price that looks too good to be true. So how do you determine which type of paper is right for your business?
Costs as well, the paper you need is the one that can perform optimally in your machine. Modern printers and copiers have one of two engines: ink or toner. Laser printers and copiers use toner, while inkjet printers use ink. Toner is a very fine powder that actually resembles a liquid. This toner is more expensive than inkjet ink cartridges.
If your printer or copier is a laser model, you need to buy paper that is optimized for printing with toner. Laser printers fuse the toner to the paper when printing. This means the engine inside the printer or copier must heat up in order for the toner to be printed on the paper. The paper you buy must be able to handle the heat and the toner. If you buy the wrong type of paper, it can become curled when exposed to the heat. Also, paper designed for use in inkjet printers can absorb the moisture during the printing process, making it more difficult to smoothly pass through the copier's internal mechanisms. This causes jams and can be damaging to the expensive printing equipment.
On the other hand, using paper designed for use in laser printers in inkjet printers will result in poorly printed papers as well. Inkjet paper is designed to absorb the ink, while laser paper is designed to have toner fused to it. Prints made on laser paper in inkjet printers will produce copies that take a long time to dry, because the paper can not properly absorb the ink.
When you determine what kind of printer or copier you have (either laser or inkjet), read the owners manual and look for the manufacturer's recommendation on the type of paper that should be used. They may list a certain weight or type that is optimal for use with that particular brand of paper. Then, simply match up these specifications with the paper in the office supply store (or online through a dealer). You will not have to worry about frequent paper jams again when your find the right paper for your printer or copy machine.
Source by Bill Abernathy