Raku Pottery like all household good need to be specially cared for. Pottery products are very fragile, hence they need to be handled carefully so that they can last longer. Imagine having this beautiful pottery in your house. After sometime you find out that it no longer has that appearance that caught your eye. It now looks old and worn out. Worse, it falls down and breaks. Hopefully, this would not be the case. As long as the following tips are followed, then that beautiful product of yours would last longer.
1. Do not subject your pottery to sudden temperature change.
2. Never pour hot water into your wares. If you must pre-warm by pouring a little hot water first into the pottery.
3. Make sure the food or liquid inside the can fills it up completely before heating. This ensures uniform heating within the product.
4. Do not dry roast meat inside your clay vessel. This can cause uneven heating and lead to breaking. Instead, add little amount of water, add your meat and then roast inside the oven.
5. ALWAYS avoid placing your pottery in areas of high altitude. Place them in places where they would not fall and break.
6. Pottery is very easy to clean. Use a damp cloth to clean your products from time to time. Also, you can allow to soak for a little while.
7. Do not use your pottery on an electric burner, broiler or direct heat source. This is because most pottery products are not formulated to withstand high temperatures.
8. Black marks left as a result of heating can be removed by scrubbing with a non abrasive metal cleaner.
9. Avoid wearing jewellery and other articles of clothing that might scratch your pottery. Also, since our fingertips contain amino acids, avoid touching your pottery with your bare hands. Try using hand gloves or latex gloves.
10. Always support the product evenly. Try placing your pottery on a flat surface. Avoid tilting it.
Most time, your product might become damaged and have to be repaired. Repairing is very easy and straight forward. There are resins that can be used to join breaks and cracks in pottery. This breaks can be spotted using a magnifying glass. After the resin has been applied, the area can then be painted to disguise the area. In some extreme cases, the product may be re-painted with paint or lacquer as the last step in its restoration. This can be done to give your product that shine and sparkle it always had.
Proper care and handling of your pottery product will help them keep their beauty and function for years.
When businesses are looking for the right bandwidth solution for critical business network applications, the popular options today are DS3 bandwidth and Business Class Ethernet. Either are a good choice as long as you understand what each can do for you. Do your homework, compare pros and cons as they relate to your network requirements, and choose wisely.
Outside of the cost difference between DS3 bandwidth and Business Ethernet (Ethernet tends to be cheaper or at least very competitive), the speed varies a wide range from 45 mbps to 100 mbps to 1000 mbps (FastE to GigE). If you shop around you’ll likely discover that DS3 line costs have dropped dramatically in today’s market. Still, Ethernet pricing is attractive where it is available. Where it is not, build out costs may be prohibitive. In terms of reliability, they’re similar because they’re both dedicated bandwidth circuits.
The traditional high bandwidth network connection is a DS3 line, delivering up to 45 Mbps of connectivity. Today, most DS3 services are provisioned over fiber optic cables with a copper handoff at the demarcation point. In some cases, you can get DS3 brought in over coaxial copper or even wireless transport. There’s plenty of flexibility available currently to deliver DS3 capacity with little restriction from the transport mechanism.
For application, a DS3 circuit works as a reliable backbone for large networks with substantial voice/data/video traffic needs. For example, organizations that need high bandwidth such as headquarters phone lines (PBX and/or VoIP), company Supply Chain Management (SCM) systems, high traffic websites, Hospital medical imaging and diagnostic systems, data/disaster recovery and backup networks, video conferencing facilities, multi-media or virtual design centers, high security networks, and ISP backbones. Where DS3 is not quite enough capacity, opting for the “next up” OC3 circuit (fiber optic bandwidth transmission) is an option.
An alternative to DS3 is Carrier Ethernet, especially Metro Ethernet in larger cities. Ethernet services offer standardized speeds of 10, 100 and 1000 Mbps to match the common LAN (Local Area Network) speeds. But most Ethernet providers also offer other increments in 1, 5 or 10 Mbps steps. A 50 Mbps Ethernet service provides similar bandwidth to DS3.
So how do you choose one service over another?
If you need the channelization of traditional TDM services for telephony or other applications, DS3 already meets this standard. It is easily multiplexed and de-multiplexed to interface with T1 lines on the low end to SONET fiber optic services (e.g. OCx) on the high end. On the other hand, if your network interests are extending your LAN or an already converged voice and data network, Metro or Carrier Ethernet is the logical connection. Make sure to understand your existing network configuration to enable a smart decision here. Otherwise, you risk potential frustration and an “apples and oranges” scenario.
If you have any concern for interface issues don’t worry. You can opt for a Managed Router Service which will take care of any such issues. Most networking applications are now packet based and more easily interfaced to Ethernet WAN services than legacy Telecom standards. But since the interface circuitry is generally an off the shelf router module, it may not matter all that much. If you go with a managed router, the service provider will take care of providing the proper customer premises equipment and monitoring the line and interfaces for proper operation. No matter whether you choose DS3 or Ethernet. In some cases, you may also get the vendor to provide the router at no cost… whether on site or remote (managed). Be sure to ask if this accommodation may be extended to you. It won’t in every case, but it’s worth asking.
Don’t overlook availability of Fractional DS3 and Burstable DS3 either. Fractional DS3 services are available that offer less than 45 Mbps for a lower monthly lease cost. You can get fractional DS3 bandwidth at the speeds where T1 bonding becomes impractical (around 10 or 12 Mbps bandwidth depending on your intended application usage). You can also go the other direction with Burstable DS3. Which allows you to start at usually 45 mbps and increase your bandwidth as your needs grow. A Burstable DS3 is the ideal solution for businesses who seek ultra-fast connectivity for their Internet needs…..and don’t require full OC3 load capacity just yet but may in the future.
On the Ethernet side, with scalable Ethernet you can specify nearly any bandwidth from 1 Mbps up to 10 Gbps and often upgrade to higher levels with just a phone call to your service provider. The flexibility of bandwidth scaling offered with Ethernet is a major advantage to this transport option.
Be advised that an Ethernet connection is not available in every location. Normally this limitation is restricted to where the network providers have fiber already laid out in the neighborhood. You’ll most often find major cities or urban areas to be “lit” while more rural locales are not. Where Business Ethernet isn’t available, a DS3 or OC3 circuit is the best option for a company that needs more bandwidth to grow.
If you’re fortunate and you’re in an area where Ethernet connections are available, whether they’re FastE or GigE, count your blessings and go for it. The cost can vary from depending on the bandwidth needed and local loop (distance from the tie in to the providers Point-Of-Presence or POP). The FastE cost and GigE cost are usually less than per megabit than a DS3 or OC3… or at the minimum very competitive.
So which bandwidth option offers the best value? The fact is that DS3 and Ethernet bandwidths compare favorably. Which you choose for your particular application will most often be determined by which service offers the best pricing for your particular business location. Therein lies the foundation for your decision…. all else being equal. DS3 bandwidth is perfect for most applications. However, if a company is price sensitive and the solution is available Business Ethernet would be the recommended alternative.
Perhaps no other industry has been hit harder by the economy than nonprofits. They are getting a double hit: more clients, less money. It is not often that ADDING a new process will lower expenses. But the exception is the new buzz – document management.
In its simplest definition, document management is the process of managing documents and other forms of information such as images from creation to storage to sharing. It also involves the indexing, storage and retrieval of documents in an organized method.
Non-profits deal with so much paperwork. Volunteer applications. Donor records. Employee files. Tax records. Document management pay for itself through better organization, storage reduction and increased compliance and document security.
Increased file organization and staff productivity.
One of the largest hidden costs that non-profits face is the time it takes to work with paper files. With a document management system, you can save money in your office with:
Improved retrieval time – obtaining paper from storage or an archive is typically slower than electronic retrieval of documentation. Let's look at an example: It takes a $ 20 / hour employee five minutes to walk to a records room, locate a file, act on it, re-file it, and return to his desk. At just four files per day, that's more than 86 hours per year spent filing – around $ 1,700 in wages. At ten files per day, that rockets up to 216 hours per year – over five weeks' time, or $ 4,300 – and that's just for one employee. A document management system lets users pull up documents in seconds without ever leaving their desks, which eliminates those 'water cooler' conversations that tend to prolong tasks.
Improved staff productivity – less time seeking for documents or trying to find the current version of a document. Faster document review and approval cycles, particularly where multiple reviewers and experts are involved in the business process, are also benefits. Customer service calls are handled with greater speed and accuracy with immediate access to information. By reducing processing time organizations can increase the volume of transactions and revenue.
"Our document management gives us rapid access to the signed documents – volunteer affidavits, interviews, reference checks, Youth Exchange applications, Host Family applications, passports, insurance paperwork and more," explained Michael Cloutier, youth director chair for Western States Student Exchange WESSEX), a non-profit organization undertaken of 24 Rotary International Distr.
Improved organization – Document management systems also eliminate the "lost document" cost – the time it takes to recreate a document that's been destroyed or misplaced. Some suppliers estimate the cost of replacing each lost document at $ 250.
Reduction of storage needs.
In addition to organization and productivity, the physical cost of filing and storing paper documents grows over time as filing cabinets consume more and more valuable office space and off-site storage fees add up.
Additional cost savings come from the space in your organization that can be freed by eliminating most paper records. With real estate costs at $ 15 to $ 50 or more per square foot in many major cities, converting records rooms into usable office space can save considerable amounts of money. In other cases, you may be able to eliminate storage costs for years of old records.
Many non-profits have been able to add staff or services in the space previously occupied by filing cabinets.
Decrease in amount of equipment and office supplies needed.
Document management systems can save you money on paper, printer and toner costs. Users do not need to print paper documents when electronic versions are available for use or reuse. It is also possible to eliminate fax machines, since documents can be e-mailed right out of most document management systems.
Touching on compliance …
Adding document management can also create potential savings. As a result of managing their information more efficiently, non-profits can be more forthcoming with their business documents to assist with regulatory compliance. This reduces their risk of potential fines and penalties in the event of an audit or lawsuit.
And the redundant off-site storage ensures business continuity should your organization experience any type of data storage disaster. All of the documents that have been added to your document management system (as long as it is web-based) will be there if your office experiences a natural or man-made disaster.
"We have several clients in New Orleans who had offices that were hit hard by Hurricane Katrina," explained Leslie Haywood, CEO of eBridge Solutions, a web-based document management system headquartered in Tampa, Florida. "The records they had scanned into our document management system survived. Everything else, including the electronic files on their computer hard drives, was lost."
Eliminating paper, increasing efficiency and reducing supply costs are benefits that any business can use today. Becoming more compliant and building a back-up set of documents are hidden benefits that could pay off in the future should audit or disaster strike. As businesses everywhere look for ways to do more with less, many non-profits are finding that document management can actually save them money.
Thousands of pets get lost every day. This is why 49% of all cats are kept indoors. You can triple their life span and have a better bond with them by keeping them indoors. I know they are natural hunters, but that was in the beginning when we did not live in cities where danger triples at every turn. This is why I advocate that you keep your cats indoors.
Make sure your pet has a collar and tag. Put the words Reward, I’m lost, Indoor only, call my human on the tag along with the phone number. This way if anyone finds him they will know how to contact you.
Calm down! Stop assigning blame and take a deep breath. You are going to need all your wits about you to follow the steps to be reunited with your companion.
Check your house from top to bottom. Attics, crawl spaces, cupboards, closets, garages, drawers and basements. I have had hundreds of calls from panicked humans who can’t find their beloved Fluffy only to discover that he struts out of the back of the kitchen cupboard the next day. Be methodical and calm.
Remember, animals can pick up on your energy. If you are frantic he will be frightened to come out because of all the commotion. If he is the only pet put down bowls of food in the middle of each room and sees if they get eaten. This is a definite sign that your fur angel is still somewhere inside your house.
If your baby is outside it’s time to start the search. Sweat as much as possible and grab a blanket or towel that has your smell on it. When you walk around the neighborhood with an open can of tuna you should be an olfactory beacon for your cat. The sweat on your clothing, the blanket or towel and the tuna is an irresistible combination.
When you walk around make sure to call the kitty in a soft, loving, normal tone. Use a nickname if he has one. If you see him and he does not come to you, sit on the ground and put the tuna in front of you to coax him.
Keep calling him, be patient. After a cat has been out of his environment for a while he can go feral (survival mode) and may have trouble recognizing his human. Once he gets close enough, reach out slowly and wrap him in the blanket and towel and take him home. Remember, the tone of your voice should be sweet and enticing.
Call the Humane Society and inform them about your lost pet. Rent a humane trap and place it by the door where your pet got out. Cover the trap with clothing that has a familiar scent and put his favorite food in it. You might catch some other babies, so know how to release them from the trap.
Getting the word out is very important! This is why I encourage everyone to keep current pictures of their pets. Descriptions can be vague, but a picture speaks a thousand words.
The reward poster is an essential tool in pet recovery. Unfortunately humans are motivated by money and if they see an amount they will take extra steps to look for your missing pet. The reward poster should have the amount on the very top in BIG BOLD LETTERS that can be seen from a distance. The next thing should be a picture of your pet. The next section should read: Lost in the vicinity of (give the name of the street only) last seen on (state the date).
Give any special characteristics such as extra toes, scar, crooked tail, very shy and a clear description of the coat and breed of your companion animal. Do not put down your address, just your phone number. If the pet has a specific medical problem, list it on the flyer. If not put down “has special needs.” This is a great motivation if someone is keeping your pet. They will think to themselves that there will be vet expenses involved and will be driven to return the pet as soon as possible.
Always go to pick up the pet with someone else and do not carry cash with you. Add that the reward will be given upon the recovery of the pet.
Distribute the poster, or what I like to call “FLOODING.” It is a proven fact that the more posters you put out the better the results. People will always take some of them down, but if you have “flooded” the area some will always be left for people to see.
Copy your flyer and put it in the local paper. If you’re pet is on medication, is ill, and is a companion to an elderly person or a child the TV News and Radio will see this as a “Special Interest” human story. Explore this area. I have compiled a list of places to put up the posters. If you come across any other good ones please e-mail me so that we can share them with others.
Apartment Complex (in the lobby by the mail boxes)
Cable Company (You can fax this~installers go out)
Check Cashing Places
Clinics (emergency care and government clinics)
Doctors (you can fax these, look in your yellow pages)
Dentists (you can fax these, look in your yellow pages)
Door to Door (in their mail boxes)
Electric Company (fax to main office, they go out for repairs)
Emergency Medical (both human and animal)
Food Delivery (look in yellow pages for Pizza, Chinese, Chicken, etc.,
they go out to deliver all the time! In person delivery of the poster is better,
but you can fax them)
Gas Company (fax)
Grocery Stores (see if they let you put it in the pet food section
of the store)
Home Improvement Stores
Hospitals (cafeteria and rec rooms for Drs and Nurses)
Ice Cream Parlors
K Mart, WALMART, Sears
Mail Carriers (give it to them)
UPS Delivery (if you see a truck put it on the windshield)
Meeting Halls (Elks, Moose and other organizations)
Movie Rentals Places
New Construction Building
PO BOX Rentals
Phone Company (this one can be faxed too)!
Photo Copy Places
Photo Developing Places
Street Corner (by traffic lights and stop signs)
Vets (within a 5 mile radius~you can fax these)!
Hope this help!
This CCTV Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive overview of deploying a successful video surveillance camera system in your business or residence. This guide contains information to help in the design of your video surveillance system, select the products that best fit your CCTV system requirements, and help make key installation decisions that will save you time and money.The information was derived from deploying 100’s of CCTV systems and gathered from CCTV call centers who answer questions from commercial and residential customers. This guide combines the data from past CTV projects and gives the reader a head-start in the successful CCTV project
There are many details to consider when specifying the correct CCTV Camera System. Professional Video Surveillance is not a cheap endeavor and a budget should be outlined and the best possible system should be considered. This guide will help the novice CCTV buyer in reviewing camera and recording system for their CCTV and Video surveillance requirements.
The first task in a successful CCTV project is to outline the key CCTV objectives.
o How many cameras are required?
o What are the key FoV (Field of View(s))?
o What are the recording requirements?
o What are the lighting conditions of each camera location?
o Where do I need live video monitoring or a second video monitor?
o How long do you need to retain the video files?
Cameras There are specific cameras that need to be selected based on the FoV, lighting conditions, and the mounting location of the camera. There is no such thing as a one-size fits all in the successful CCTV project. It is important to note each camera location and select the camera best suited for that location.
Answer these questions:
o Indoor or Outdoor?
o Lighting conditions (during day and night)?
o Mounting locations?
Indoor Dome Camera
The indoor dome camera is used in 90% of general indoor applications. It comes in a variety of configurations including standard color, Day/Night, and Infrared versions. It can be mounted on a horizontal or vertical surface but is typically ceiling mounted. Lens options on dome camera may restrict their use in certain applications such as requiring more than a 20mm video lens. Dome cameras are a primary choice in indoor camera locations.
A box camera is a standard camera that can be mounted alone or in an enclosure. The box camera uses a separate lens that screws on to the front surface and provides flexibility for different FoV requirements and is sold without a lens. An auto-iris lens will have a small cable that connects to the camera for iris control in various lighting conditions.
Outdoor Dome Cameras
Outdoor Dome Cameras are typically hard shell vandal-roof casings that offer the same versatility in a variety of lens options. Day/Night outdoor dome cameras are common in applications that have entry and exit points with limited lighting during the night.
The Day/Night camera is the best choice for low-light conditions. The cameras are standard color during daylight conditions, the Day/Night camera switches either digitally of mechanically to a low-lux B/W mode.
During No-Light conditions, Infrared cameras provide infrared illumination of the FoF allowing monitoring of areas with no light available. Te IR LEDs are automatically illuminated and the camera switched to the B/W low-lux mode offering camera views in total darkness.
Pan-Tilt-Zoom camera offer the ability to view in all directions and optically zoom in as required. PTZ cameras also include standard color, Day/Night modes, and a few IR PTZ cameras have been introduced recently. The CCTV operator can set the PTZ cameras to automatically rotate to different FoVs. Options include Auto-tracking applications that dynamically track objects in defined areas.
About the Camera technology
Sony CCDs are the predominate video element in security cameras today. Sony makes few cameras, but they own the CCD market. Do not think that Sony makes the camera touted as ” Sony 1/3″ Super HAD Camera” as many vendors advertise their cameras. The camera has a Sony CCD, however the camera is not from Sony and could be almost any brand camera out there. Important factors of lens quality, vari-focal and auto-iris ability, quality of camera housing or enclosure, and lens optics are the difference in a professional CCTV camera.
Facts about Cameras:
o If you buy an $80 camera, you will get an $80 view.
o 480 TVL should be a minimum requirement in any professional CCTV project.
o Location of the camera and the correct lens are keys to quality video capture
o Cameras love light and thieves hate the light! Add lighting wherever possible
Box cameras can be mounted in a variety of enclosures. Outdoor enclosures in cold climates should include a heater/blower that keeps frost and condensation from forming on the lens and camera. Heater/Blower are commonly 24VAC and should be considered when selecting the CCTV power supply system.
Camera mounting location is critical to the success of the CCTV project. Cameras should be mounted as close possible to the field of view required, and the closer the camera to the subject the better the identification of the subject will be. Proper lens selection relative to the camera location and the FoV required is essential to a quality picture.
Digital Video Recorders
DVRs are an important part of any successful CCTV project. Video resolution is getting larger, recording speeds are getting faster, and video data compression is reducing the video data file size. TeraByte storage capacity is becoming common in many CCTV applications. Network or remote monitoring of CCTV video is standard in all professional DVRs on the market in 2007 and video distribution across LANs, WANs, and the Web have given the DVR a new market outside of video security known as Business Systems Monitoring that allows management to monitor specified key business areas 24 hours a day. No longer just a security video recorder, the DVR has become a business tool for management with remote monitoring applications.
In order to choose the correct DVR for any application, the following questions need to be answered.
o How many channels (cameras)?
o What speed of recording is required?
o How long to retain video files (Hard Drive Size)?
o What features are important to the application?
o Where will DVR system be located?
o Remote monitoring requirements?
In choosing the right DVR for your CCTV application, ensure that you are determining the quantity of cameras needed now and in the next 24 months. DVRs come in 4, 8, 9, and 16 channel increments and this selection is critical because adding cameras above the DVR channels available will require an additional DVR, not just additional channels. DVR systems in large installations are segmented into 16 channels units and are monitored and managed through a Central Management System.
The speed of recording is critical to many CCTV applications. 30 fps (frames per second) is considered real-time video, therefore to obtain 30 fps for the application, 480 fps for 16 channels and 240fps for 8 channels is required. Many CCTV applications will provide real-time (30 fps) live viewing of video channels and 7-15 fps for recorded files. It is acceptable to have 7-15 fps for recorded files in many applications, but technology in DVR systems has pushed real-time video for the masses and 30 fps recording will soon be the standard recording rates across all channels as available today.
Storage of vide files is much easier and cost effective in 2007 than ever before. DVR storage at the TeraByte level is common and drives have become faster and more reliable. Retention of video data files can be managed by corporate IT departments as any business critical data and network drive archiving is common. All of the top DVR systems have USB ports for external storage devices and LAN-based video servers are common. A critical component of any DVR system is the ability to access the video files. The software provided by DVR manufacturers is proprietary to the DVR unit and the ability to retrieve files chronologically or based on certain security events is vital to the DVR product.
PC-Based vs. Standalone DVRs
Standalone DVR systems were the majority of video recorders sold in the marketplace up until 2006. Computer-based DVRs have become increasingly popular due to the cost and features provide in the latest generation of DVR cards on the market in 2007. The Windows XP PC computer is providing the reliability and performance in today’s DVR systems that are required for mission critical video security systems. The open architecture of PC-based DVR systems allow easy integration into corporate LANs and technology upgrades are at a component level. Software upgrades and hard drive storage additions are far less costly that proprietary DVR systems. Standalone DVRs are imbedded recording systems usually operating under Linux OS. The standalone DVRs are widely used in retail security sites and provide reliable video recording for 4-16 channels. Most DVRs on the market offer network remote access and CD R/W archiving.Computer-based DVR systems are reliable, fast, and have many advanced applications not found on standalone systems.
MPEG4 and H.264 are the video compression of choice in 2007. In summary, MPEG4 is good and H.264 is better. The key to video compression is the resolution and the size of the video. High resolution video files are monster size files and video compression for storage and streaming is critical to any video application. Major advancements in video compression will be seen in 2007 and H.264 will be the codec of choice for DVR manufacturers.
This uses the latest innovations in video compression technology to provide high resolution video quality from the smallest amount of video data required. Smaller files will save bandwidth and storage costs over previous generations of video codecs. H.264 delivers the same quality as MPEG-2 at a third to half the data rate and up to four times the frame size of MPEG-4 Part 2 at the same data rate. H.264 is used in the latest video devices for High Definition video devices, BluRay DVDs and should be considered for any professional CCTV project.
Network Access and Remote Viewing
Network access is the ability to remotely monitor a video server across the LAN, WAN, or internet. A very important application for any DVR system is the ability to monitor live and access to recordings through remote access. Most DVRs today have a LAN RJ45 connection that allows the Video Recorder to connect to the LAN just like any other PC in the office.
Advanced DVR Features
Many CCTV systems are releasing advanced security and specialty software for security enhancements. These include:
o Object counting
o POS Integration
o PTZ Auto-Tracking
o Face Recognition
o Access Control Integration
CCTV Cabling and System Layout
DVR Location In choosing the optimal location for the DVR system, consider the access of the area for centralized control and security of the area. The DVR is the heart of the CCTV system and should be protected as necessary to ensure it is safe from theft or damage. If the security breach includes theft of the DVR component, all evidence is carried off under the arm of the thief. And the thieves know this, so ensure that the DVR system is in a lock-box or an appropriate secure area.
Camera Power Supply
Each professional camera requires either 12VDC or 24VAC. Both power options are acceptable and some CCTV installations will require both. Central Power Supplies are available in 4,8,16 and more channels.
Traditional video cable is RG59 coax cable. Siamese dual cable is commonly used that provides RG59u coax together with a pair of 18 gauge wire for the camera power requirements. The dual cable allows single cable runs to each camera for both video and power.
UTP (twisted pair) cabling is becoming more popular with Cat-5e/Cat-6 cabling used in networks. CAT cabling is lighter and less expensive than coax cabling and requires balun connectors to match the impedance of the video signal. Coax and UTP connections up to1000′ feet are acceptable. A balun is used to match the impedance on Cat-5 connections on the DVR and camera connections.
The Successful Video Surveillance Project
o Quality Plan
o Quality Cameras
o Quality DVR
o Quality Installation
Author: Steve McNeal