There are many advantages to constructing flat roofs on commercial buildings. Firstly, the economic value makes a flat roof design extremely affordable. Also, commercial buildings often require mechanical and electrical equipment for such things as heating and air conditioning, making a flat roof the ideal location to house such large units. Repair is often easier to perform on a flat roof, and when the building is a high rise, that’s definitely a plus. This article will discuss the two most popular types of commercial flat roofs, giving the benefits and downsides to both.
Built-Up Roofing (BUR)
If you’ve seen a flat roof on a commercial building, chances are you’ve seen built-up roofing, also called a BUR roof. It is the traditional “hot tar and gravel” design. This type of roofing gets its name of “built-up” by the number of layers of bitumen (asphalt or coal tar) used to create the roof. A framing structure holds layers of moisture barriers and waterproofing laid in a criss-cross pattern. While traditionally the materials have been a form of tar paper, fiberglass sheets have come more into use in recent years. The actual bitumen is made of hot tar and gravel or other aggregate materials such as sand, white marble, and lava rock. Professionals measure BUR roofing by the number of layers which comprise the total structure, the higher number representing high quality.
The two major advantages of BUR roofing is it is the most cost-effective to install, and the gravel is an excellent fire retardant. The downfall to BUR roofing is the excessive weight of the materials requires a very sound structure on which to build. In addition, gravel can, over time, get loose and clog gutters or drains, and the design makes finding leaks difficult. However, repairs to BUR roofing can be done in patches, saving time and expense on replacing large areas.
Single Ply Roofing
The immediate difference Single Ply Roofing has over BUR roofing is, literally, the single layer used to create the roof. This is done with a membrane, usually made of rubber materials, and may be as thin as.045 to.090 inches. Membrane-style roofs are designed to have a long lifespan and are known to be extremely water-resistant. They come in several varieties, but most are made from synthetic rubber (EPDM), poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) or TPO (thermoplastic polyolefin). Installation varies greatly from BUR roofing, as the Single Ply materials do not need separate layers of waterproofing. The Single Ply can be installed directly over the roofing frame. To allow for a more green and energy efficient roof, additional insulation can be added under the membrane. The last step of installation involves bonding the seams of the membranes together to avoid leakage. This is usually done by either melting or chemically bonding the membranes to one another.
Without seams, the membrane can comfortably expand and contract in weather changes. With this flexibility, the material avoids leaks or cracks. Repairs on membrane roofs are performed easily with patches as well, however, locating the leaks is often far more difficult than with BUR style roofing. The material is considerably lighter than the gravel used in BUR roofing, but it does have more of a likelihood of puncturing. The EPDM roofs are cheaper, but the material is black, so an additional layer of white (especially in Southern regions) is often needed to aid in reflecting heat which otherwise is absorbed by the material’s natural coloring.
To learn more about commercial flat roofs and which type is right for you and your business, contact a commercial roof installation company nearest you.
Every year, more than 300 individuals worldwide lose their lives due to fire hazards bought on by faulty electrical circuits. Statistics suggest that a majority of these fires are caused due to arc circuits, and can be easily avoided by installing arc fault circuit interrupters (AFCI) in the building.
Keeping the safety of people in mind, the National Electrical Code (NEC) guidelines as of 1999 have now made it mandatory for every new residential building to have an AFCI installed in the bedroom. Licensed Electricians are now busy installing AFCIs in not just new homes, but even in older structures where damaged wiring is the main culprit behind arcing faults.
How an electric arc causes fires
Arcing faults are caused due to the presence of deteriorated wires and damaged cords in your home. An older structure, exposure of wires to natural elements, poorly installed switches or outlets, and puncturing the wire insulation while trying to hang a picture are some of the reasons why home wiring deteriorates over a period of time. Whenever an electric arc is formed, high temperatures are generated that can make combustible material such as carpets, wood, and paper catch fire.
Why Arc Fault Circuits should be installed
'Why do we need an AFCI when our home already has a circuit breaker?' is the first question that is often asked by many people when they hire an electrician. The reason is simple: a traditional circuit breaker cuts off the electricity supply only in the case of a short circuit or overload. It does not offer any resistance to the erratic current that will flow due to arcing conditions.
On the other hand, the internal circuit of an AFCI is so designed that it is able to make a distinction between the current current and the excessive current during arcing. Whenever an abnormality is observed, the internal contacts of the AFCI trip, leaving the circuit de-energized, which in turn reduces the chances of an electrical fire.
You can kill two birds with a single stone when you hire a certified electrical contractor to install AFCI in your homes. They not only shut off the electric circuit in case of an arcing fault, but also trip when an overload or short circuit occurs.
AFCI installation offers excellent protection for branch wirings and provides limited protection when you are using an extension or power cord.
The installation of an AFCI should not be a DIY project. Hire the services of an experienced electrician to install these safety devices in your home. Follow the manufacturer's instructions.
The very first of carpet-cleaning machines was first brought to light in 1869. It was called the "sweeping machine" which was invented by Ives Mcgaffey. Not long after that, in 1901, Hubert Cecil Booth came out with carpet-cleaning machines with a British patent, which was a much larger horse drawn, gas driven machine. This would often be seen parked outside of businesses that were being cleaned; the hose would be pushed through the windows of the building to where the carpet was to be cleaned. Sometimes the machines were made smaller and easier to use. It would take a whole corps of people to move these large machines from one business to another
The first of portable carpet-cleaning machines came about in 1907, invented by James Murray Spangler. He found he was getting ill from the sweeping machine and went to work on fixing the problems of the dirt and dust being put back into the air. He was the first to use a cloth type filter with attachments for cleaning. He got the patent for his "portable electric vacuum" in 1908 and sold it to a gentleman we have all heard of, William H. Hoover. Hoover® carpet cleaning machines are one of the leading brands sold still today; at one time or another every household had a Hoover.
The Air-Way Sanitizor introduced the first disposable bag "filter fiber" in 1920 in Toledo, Ohio. This was perhaps one of the best parts of the carpet cleaning machines invented. Another name well known to every household is Bissell. Anna Bissell and her husband Melville ran a crockery shop in Michigan. Melville has severe allergies from the sawdust and Anna fought hard to keep the establishment dust free for him. Melville originally developed the first carpet sweeper which got it's patent in 1876. He later went on to create carpet-cleaning machines, which incorporated the use of detergent and water to clean carpets. These carpet-cleaning machines were introduced in the early 1950's. Bissell products are sold in more than 60 countries today.
Carpet Cleaning Technology Has Come A Long Way
The carpet cleaning machines have sure come a long way from the horse drawn-gas powered cleaners of yesterday. There are carpet cleaner machines that area small enough to fit into a pocket now. No home would be complete with out some type of vacuum or sweeper and for those tough stains you will find people using the ever popular carpet steam cleaners.
In the late summer of 1696, fierce winds blew all night and a young English Quaker merchant sailing from Jamaica to Philadelphia, was wide awake in the pre-dawn tempest. He peered into the dark against the terrible gale. His wife and infant son huddled in the hold of the ship along with the crew, ten slaves and an injured ship commander.
The ship’s master and commander had ordered the casting off of most provisions and had the sails l, letting the ship be driven by the relentless force of wind and water. The ship commander, whose leg had been broken by a wind driven boom, said that all was now in God’s hands and all awaited their fate in the shrieking dark tumult. Hours later as if sleep was somehow possible, the merchant was nearly feeling calm when a sudden lurch and groaning sound filled all his senses. He ran, fell, slid across the lurching deck, got up and stumbled toward the hold. The doorway, now a gaping hole let out the sound of the cries of terror of those inside.
Perhaps a merciful lull allowed crew and passengers to lay hold of parts of the wooden ship as she broke into pieces against the shoals while running aground in the shallows. Ultimately, all souls aboard survived shipwreck to face all that awaited them. Where they were was uncertain other than somewhere on the coast of the savage land of Florida. The young merchant was none other than Jonathan Dickinson aboard the Reformation in her last hour.
He wrote later in his journal of the harrowing experience, the shipwreck proving only a prelude to the difficulties ahead. Eventually, stripped of most of their belongings, and even much of their clothing, the party was allowed to make their way to St. Augustine but not without the death of some during the journey.
The “Jobes” burned the ship but gave the castaways food which they feared to eat, thinking the “canibals” so entitled in Dickinson’s journal were desiring to fatten them for the cooking pot.
Eventually, granted possession of the ship’s boat and some of its remaining provisions, the remnant of the merchant party (five died on the journey) made their way toward St. Augustine and Philadelphia. Dickinson’s journal, his first literary work, describing the events in detail and printed twenty two times, made him famous for centuries.
The encounter put Jupiter on the map of the western world.
Little would be known of the Hobe, or more accurately, Jaega, tribe had it not been for the writings of Dickinson and a captive of seventeen years of a relative tribe on the west coast of Florida, Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda.
The city of Jupiter derived its name from inadvertent anglicizing of the term, Jove, which was mis-copied from Hobe on some mapmaker’s work.
Today’s modern residents of Jupiter from Tori Amos to Burt Reynolds would hardly regard the town as bearable much less attractive in its original form. Locals mis-trusted everyone, especially the Spanish whom the Reformation survivors tried to convince the Hobe tribe they were. The Spanish were known for killing or enslaving anyone who ventured too far north to build their fortress at St. Augustine. The Dickinson may have faced a far different fate had their journey taken place a few years earlier.
Jupiter homes and PGA National homes and golf resorts now populate the areas once inhabited by the Hobe Tribe.
Stocking the kitchen in your first apartment can be daunting; there are so many things to consider. Unless you're a polished chef, you probably only need some basics to start you off. And, since this is your first apartment, you're probably a bit short on space. Here's a list of what you should consider purchasing.
Invest in good-quality knives and they'll last you a lifetime. Here are some good basics to start with:
Even if you do not see yourself baking cakes and pies, you will need a few basic items.
One last suggestion for your first kitchen would be a great cookbook. Ask someone who cooking you love. They'll certainly have a favorite to share.