Aiming to stop wasteful use of energy and bridge the power demand-supply gap, the Government of India enacted the Energy Conservation Act(EC Act) and established Bureau of Energy Efficiency under Ministry of Power. One of the important provisions of the EC Act relates to the enforcement of Energy Conservation Building Codes for efficient use of energy and its conservation in the buildings or building complexes.
As defined in the EC Act, Energy Conservation Building Codes(E.C.B.C) means the norms and standards of energy consumption expressed in terms of per square metre of the area where the energy is used and includes the location of the building.
The EC Act mandates the E.C.B.C for buildings with a connected load of 500 KW or contract demand of 600×1000 VA and above and are intended to be used for the commercial purposes and are constructed after the rules relating to E.C.B.C have been notified by the States Governments under section 15 (a).
Features of E.C.B.C
The E.C.B.C will set minimum energy efficiency standards for design and construction of a non-residential building. Energy performance standards for the following building systems are included in the E.C.B.C
• Building Envelope.
• Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning.
• Service Water Heating.
• Electric Power and Distribution.
However, the broad requirements of the Code with respect to the building envelope are the same for new buildings as well as for extensions and modifications.
All over the world, E.C.B.Cs have a proven track record of significantly reducing energy use in buildings in a cost effective manner. The E.C.B.C benefit both individual building owners and the people and government at large. Benefit to property owners include reduced energy costs and improved comfort (both thermal and visual). The benefits to society include the following:
• Reduced capital investments in energy supply infrastructure.
• Reduced environmental impacts.
• Improved electricity reliability.
• More efficient use of resource (It is cheaper to save energy than it is to build new power plants).
It is estimated that buildings that are E.C.B.C compliant have a potential of savings to the tune of about 30%-35%.
Road Map to make E.C.B.C Mandatory
Given the fact that the capacity in the country required to effectively implement this code is inadequate, the implementation of the codes will be on voluntary basis initially. Incentives to promote its use in the voluntary phase will be provided. Only when there is sufficient availability of both technical expertise and complaint material, will the codes be made mandatory. The Government will launch an effective awareness campaign to promote E.C.B.C all over the country.
All the buildings or building complexes with a connected load of 500 kW or greater or a contract demand of 600×1000 VA or greater* have to comply with the Code. Buildings with 1,000 m2 or more of conditioned area are likely to fall under the above load conditions. The following sections which deal with mandatory and prescriptive requirements of new and existing buildings are related to this specified threshold area. It is important to mention here that these mandatory and prescriptive requirements are applicable only where the building has a connected load of 500 kW or more or contract demand of 600×1000 VA or more..
The Code is presently under voluntary adoption in the country.
This Code would become mandatory as and when it is notified by the Central and State government in the official Gazette under clause (p) of §14 or clause (a) of §15 of the Energy Conservation Act 2001 (52 of 2001)
As per the Code:
Power transformers of the proper ratings and design must be selected to satisfy the minimum acceptable efficiency at 50% and full load rating. In addition, the transformer must be selected such that it minimizes the total of its initial cost in addition to the present value of the cost of its total lost energy while serving its estimated loads during its respective life span.
E.C.B.C lists various transformer sizes of dry-type and oil-filled transformers and their associated losses at 50% and full load rating.
CALCULATIONS DEPICTING THE PAYBACK PERIOD:
Return On Investment (ROI) for Transformer Of 1500×1000 VA with 100% Loading.
Total Losses(In KW)———————————–19.11/14.143
Difference of Losses(In KW)—————————4.967
Hours in a Day——————————————-24
Rate Per Unit———————————————7.5
Savings Per Year(In Rs.)——————————-326331.9
Cost of Equipment(In Rs.)—————————–865000/1350000
Difference in Prices————————————–485000
Return on Investment———————————–1.49
Return on Investment (In Months)——————-18 Months Approx.
From above it can be concluded that we can approx. Rs. 3.25Lac on our electricity bill and additional cost price paid by us shall be returnable after 18 Months, this is will be a huge saving on the electricity bills.
Green building is an idea of building homes smarter, there are several different steps in refining "green." Starting with practicing "green" carpentry, this simply means looking for ways to construct houses in a way that will save on lumber without compromising the structure or longevity of the home. An example of which is using a double 2×10 header (common practice) on a non load bearing wall … Doing so wastes not only lumber and money, but robs the insulation value of the space above the window. This is just one example of "green" carpentry.
Another issue is wasted materials on the job site. If you own and contract your work out, see to it that your crews utilize the "ends of the board" or "cut-off" pieces; also using scrap lumber and sheeting as corner backers and bracing. Another way to practice "green" is the construction waste: Separating the construction waste by demolition materials, recyclables, and actual garbage. The proverbial "job site dumpster" will not be found on a true green builders job site. It is amazing how much cardboard comes off a job site!
Practicing "green" excavating and landscaping: The goal is simply to upset as little soil as possible while utilizing the resources on site. It's always nice when there is not a need to haul soils in or out of the property. With creative excavating you can often make simple but effective water run-off situations while eliminating the need for retaining walls. When possible the top soil is scraped and cleaned before it is pushed in a pile. That dirt can then be re-used once the site is ready for top soil. Trees and other landscape materials are also preserved and utilized.
Another common "green" practice is the use of renewable building materials. When it is prudent and sensible choose a product that comes from a renewable source, over a product that does not. As a green builder, you will be put into situations where you must make those decisions where renewable materials may be overpriced; or may use more fossil fuels in production and shipping than it's worth.
Sometimes "green" is defined by using non toxic materials. Paint, treated lumber, insulation are just some examples of materials that have been known to have toxic properties in them. Pay attention to this issue and avoid any known products and materials that can be dangerous in a home.
Other times, "green" is referring to carbon emissions or the carbon footprint. I have done years of research finding ways to make homes more energy efficient. If you want to build a beautiful sustainable home look into building a single level home, using radiant heat as the heating source. You will have very little emissions due to the fact that this type of home utilizes an electric boiler with thermal storage, with the benefit of off-peak pricing. Electricity is an excellent, clean and affordable energy source. "Green" most definitely has a place when it comes to energy efficiency. Choosing "energy star" rated products and materials are also very important when going "green." Insulation, windows, light fixtures, appliances, heating & cooling systems, sun exposure all come into play.
Renewable energy sources are yet another example of "green." Building your home with a thermal storage system that provides affordable heat & cool storage. Ground source heat pumps, wind power and solar power are all excellent renewable energy sources. Currently the issue with them is the front end cost. Hopefully as time goes on the initial costs will come down and they will be a more viable option for the main market market.
Another example of "green" is building with materials and products that will stand the test of time. Building materials, fixtures and appliances that are more durable and longer lasting, save on the environment as well as your pocketbook. Steel roofs are just one example. The challenge here however is the front end costs. Another issue is the fast changing demands of the industry. I can still recall the $ 800 microwave that now sells for under $ 50.00. Point being your expensive latest and greatest could soon become a dinosaur.
The size, footprint and design of a home can be "green" as well. It is seemingly coming to a realization that the big "McMansions" are a thing of the past. A modest, conservative floor plan that uses all of the homes square footage is becoming more and more of a focus in the new home market.
Finally, "green" can be about saving money. That's right! Going "green" can save you some green! The concept is simple, choosing the right materials, appliances and making smart decisions are all about "green!" Making smart choices will stretch your dollar as well as save on our planet.
Whether we like it or not, "green" is here to stay. Before building your next home be sure to plan with "green" in mind. Be a creative home builder, constantly researching the latest and most innovative ways to build homes. By following these guidelines, you can rest assured that your home will be built in alignment with the "green" movement.
Over the last few years the gradual development of life on earth has been marked with several technological discoveries. Since the industrial revolution a large number of machines have been developed in order to make day to day industrial functions easier. Vacuum Compressor has become an important industrial equipment that helps vacuum cleaners function smoothly. The main work of a compressor is to compress air or gas and power an electrical tool.
The history of vacuum cleaners dates back to the mid 19th century when a machine that cleaned dust by sucking it from the air was invented. Since its invention vacuum cleaners have undergone drastic changes and developments and today they are one of the most widely used home appliances in the world. Since 1980's the vacuum cleaning technology has seen huge changes from manually operating devices to automated robots. However, the compressor forms the core of the machine and without the compressor it is not possible for vacuum cleaners to function properly.
Different types of vacuum compressors are manufactured through different processes. It is quite obvious that the compressors in industrial vacuum cleaners would be a lot different than domestic vacuum cleaners. Therefore, the manufacturing processes are also a lot different from each other. However, it is important to take proper care of the raw materials and the process itself in order to produce quality materials. As these compressors form the core of the vacuum cleaning machines there is no room for compromising with the quality. These compressors should be maintained properly so that the cleaners can deliver the desired performance for a long time.
Importance of quality
The vacuum compressor should be of impeccable quality because the performance of the vacuum cleaners largely depends on the performance of the compressors. Buyers need to take the help of an expert professional while making a purchase of these compressors. As there is no room for compromising with the quality, users should always look for the products that would deliver the best performance. It is not always possible for buyers to ascertain the quality of the products. Here, it is better to take the help of such a person who has enough knowledge and expertise in this matter.
There are many companies across the globe involved in the manufacturing and distribution of Vacuum Compressor to buyers. Most of these companies have their own websites where buyers can get valuable information about the products and services offered by these companies which would very well help them choose the right product. It is also possible to place an online order for these products nowdays. The main advantage of online shopping is that it helps buyers obtain the desired product without taking a single step out of their house. However, it is always important to check the after sales service and the warranty policy before placing an order.
There are many places you can shop for products to use in your model train layout. Brick and mortar storefronts with large product selections are not always conveniently located near everyone. That is why many people utilize mail order and internet model train store companies for their hobby purchases.
Some stores carry only specific brands of products and others carry items produced by a variety of manufacturers. Shopping is more convenient on websites that carry not only locomotives or train sets, but also track, power supplies, rolling stock, buildings and structures, landscape scenery, and figures.
You will find that you most often save on shipping costs if you order multiple items from the same resource as opposed to several orders from multiple suppliers. If you carefully compare prices prior to purchase, you may find that paying a little more for an item at one store still saves you money overall based on shipping and prices of other products purchased.
Lantz Hobby Shop Inc. out of Horseheads, New York launched their website, wholesaletrainers.com, in 1999. They were one of the first hobby shops to launch online. In 2001, they began to offer secure online shopping to their customers 24/7.
They offer train sets made by Lionel, Atlas, and MTH. They have steam and diesel locomotives, trolley and handcars, freight and passenger cars, industrial rail cars, two and three rail track, and industrial rail track.
Wholesale Trains offers some impressive train sets such as the Dewitt Clinton Heritage Set by Lionel. It is 1:48 Standard O scale and a part of the Heritage Series of 19th century steam locomotives. The passenger "coaches" very closely match actual stagecoaches from that era.
It is well worth a visit to their website to check out the many products they offer for serious railroading hobbyists. Whether you are searching for figures, buildings, tunnels, trestles, bridges, lighting, vehicles, or parts, you want to visit the Wholesale Trains site.
Internettrains.com out of Brea, California, is another great site to visit if you are searching for model train products. They offer trains by manufacturers such as Athearn, Bachmann, Atlas, Lionel, and Walthers.
Internet Trains offers products in Z, HO, O, N, S, and some larger scale models. They also carry smoke fluid and pellets, motors, lighting and electrical, weathering paint, decals, scenery, DCC, sound, display cases, tools and more.
These are only two of the many model train store sources offering products for your railroading layout. You can visit various train forums and ask other hobbyists for information on where they purchase their products. Another good source of suppliers is at model train shows. The attendees of the shows are usually very avid train enthusiasts, and most of them are happy to discuss the hobby and share their knowledge with you simply because of their love of railroading.
Remember to compare prices and shipping costs among various suppliers. All aboard!