We need solutions to our drought crisis in this country. There are simple but expensive solutions; for instance; Desalination, salt water rivers and conservation strategies. Now before you accusing me of hyping any of the newest technologies or try to tell me it costs too much, let me explain something about the Earth’s water supply.
Only 3% of the Earth’s Water is fresh. This includes the water and moisture in the clouds, underground reservoirs, rivers, lakes, streams and pipelines. So if we keep increasing the population of mammals we will need to have a larger supply of fresh water. The oceans are full and the atmosphere converts this to fresh water and then it rains and we collect it. So far we end up flooding areas when we make it rain or we fail. We use up all the fresh water in the waterways, which pass through our cities and we waste the rest on things that are not important unless you love what Tiger Woods does.
People say it will cost too much to take water from the ocean where 70 percent of our population lives and turn it into fresh water to serve that population’s growing needs. Well I say it does not cost that much at all. Water generally and it depends where you live in the US, costs about $ 1.60-2.10 per 743 gallons, (a unit of water) do not ask me about our system of measurement I am still trying to figure out how much a fathom, knot, bushel or pint is. Apparently the scientists have not figured out the difference between a yard and a meter either judging by the crash of the last Mars Probe a few years back, even though I do not believe it actually crashed.
So let us say that water tripled in price? Is that a big deal really? No, because we already use twice the water we need average household uses 20-40 units of water and if they were more conservative with the water they would use only 10-20 units thus instead. Thus their bill would be in half and if you doubled that well there you are again; no big deal really. And now you have unlimited supply and people up river do not have to supply people who choose to live in dry arid places where water is piped or canal it in from far away.
Los Angeles area for instance sits on the water yet takes water from the Bay Delta, Mono Lake and Colorado River, when PHX and Las Vegas both need the water. On the East coast same thing you have the megalopolis from Boston to D.C. that needs incredible amounts of water yet nearly every major city including NYC sits within miles of the ocean. Come on people Duh? Critics say it costs too much to build, it will never pay itself back and it will kill areas of wetland, which host at least four hundred species of rare mosquitoes. (Yah the kind that carry West Nile virus with big stingers).
Desalination is the answer it always has been and we can build water canals to deliver this water to almost every Major Southern US City, problem solved. We can also use this to balance out the planet in places where gravity is uneven due to our taking oil or water out of the ground, open spaces under the surface. This will also cause the Earth to spin more evenly chill out the weather patterns, slow global warming and solve hundreds of other issues.
Now we can figure out where to put these surface canals and reservoirs and straighten out the wheel like weights when you balance your tires and we get for that effort less intense weather, like Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Hurricanes, typhoons, Tornados, etc.
What we are talking about is taking a need for water for humans and balancing out the gravity of the planet simultaneously. So lets just say we will never perfectly balance out the planet. So what if we can add salt water canals in areas, which will be closer to a balanced spinning of Earth, we have accomplished two objectives and we will gain much from this. For instance if Mono Lake were filled up with water would that extra weight be in a good spot? If yes do it; if no do not; if you do, use that as the reservoir to make your fresh water with. If you look closely at the topography of the US you will see many places were building a saltwater canal is very simple and really costs less than building a highway.
and as you can see from this PHX project the fees are not overly costly to do this as one would predict, also check out the plant being built in Tampa Bay, FL and the fees are not going to be that bad, our technology is so much better than it was before. And whereas you may turn on your TV set and see the latest floods around the world rest assured that this is a global issues now, and we will have over 60,000,000,000 people on this planet by 2045. And you know what that is really not that far away, isn’t that the year the ponzi scheme called Social Security will implode? It is not really that far from now and certainly not long in the history of our species.
If we want to continue on this path, we must pay attention to the needs of human life. The children born today, yes today in August of 2005 will have a life expectancy of 120 years, they will live until 2125, much longer than 2045, for 2045 is right around the corner. And this is without all the latest drugs, artificial limbs and components grown from stem cells such as hearts, kidneys, liver, bone marrow, brain tissue and lungs. All this is in the works my friend and no fundamentalist religious endeavors are going to stop the pursuit to find the cure for cancer, Alzheimer’s or heart disease either. So you may plan on being around for a while and watching your grandkids become grandparents.
And see all the people you helped make that have infested the planet. Now without condemning you for creating all these people, you need to think about what you are doing here. If we all decide to follow our destiny and that of our ancestors to procreate, we must be wise enough to figure out a way to feed them all, house them and look after them, and one thing above all they will need is water.
The air should clean itself as we develop different ways of transportation through free enterprise and innovations such as fuel cell technologies and alternate energies. So let’s concentrate on solving these drought issues by coming to a long term understanding of the real problems and then work towards those technologies which serve the entrepreneur and free market best short term, and simultaneously solve a greater need to serve the future of mankind, because it does appear that we are all congregating in the same locations and over taxing such fundamental needs as water supply.
We need to control the weather and the best way to do that is to balance the planet and eliminate the variables in our weather first. The wobbling can stop, we can have drink, control the weather, have jobs, and off springs, as it appears to be one of the strongest innate needs of man and live long and fulfilling lives without risk of starvation by millions, agricultural disaster in entire continents and unpredictable weather. How serious is all this. Well there is ample time, but crisis management predicts that the best time to solve a problem is clearly before it happens. Building salt water canals is really easy, really simple and we could have them all completed in less than four or five years, plenty of time to curb any major calamity.
Tell me when you had enough evidence of what I am saying. Stop reading only the newspapers and realize the droughts today are going to be worse in the future as we add more people, more golf courses, more lawns, more houses along the same over taxed, over worked and under supplied rivers of an Earth whose temperatures still rising even after the height of the last three years ago high of the solar maximum and yet the cool temperatures have never recovered.
The planet did not cool back down yet, and even if it did, there is not enough of the current water in many parts of the country to accept more people. So if you are waiting for the down side of a short-term cycle of a heated planet it ain’t happening anytime soon. Face it as it is we do not have enough water to continue this rate of population growth. Maybe in the wettest of years it can handle a few more, but not without some serious consideration to conservation, some continued excellent planning by developers, who by the way should be congratulated on their incredible success in sustainable housing and positive sharing of resources in energy conservation and use of materials.
We must look at all levels of this situation. The time is coming when every year will be a drought year, simply due to predictable usage and reasonable assumptions in supply and demand. We need a solution, we need to work together and we better plan for tomorrow, because it was yesterday recently and we knew we would be here today. What say you?
Source by Lance Winslow
Rankings are as of Sunday May 30th, 2011
1. Philadelphia Phillies (33-20) – The Philadelphia Phillies remain the top team in Major League Baseball with their 33-20 record. The Phillies have the top home record in the national league; 19-10. Philadelphia was unable to finish off a three game sweep of the New York Mets on Sunday; falling 9-5. The Philadelphia offense has been up and down, with many injuries. The Phillies top hitter has been Placido Polanco, with a .314 average. The Phillies starting pitchers have record the most quality starts in the league; with 37 and have the best earned run average in all of baseball; 3.02.
2. Cleveland Indians (31-19) – The cardiac kids out of the American League Central have been the Cleveland Indians. After 50 games, the Indians are 12 games over.500 and 6.5 games ahead of the Detroit Tigers. The Indians were downed on Sunday by Tampa Bay, but still held the largest divisional lead in baseball. Cleveland has an offense that is 5th in runs scored (242) and 5th in batting average (.261). Asdrubal Cabrera has been the leading offensive player, batting .302, with 10 homeruns, 35 runs batted in and 34 runs scored.
3. St. Louis Cardinals (32-22) – The St. Louis Louis Cardinals just finished a nine game, three city road trip to Kansas City, San Diego and Colorado with six wins. The Cardinals have been playing great baseball, and lead Milwaukee by 2.5 games in the Central. The Cardinals are the top offensive team in the league, batting.285, with 264 runs scored. Their three time MVP Albert Pujols has really been struggling, batting under .270 for the first time in his career this late in a season. Matt Holliday and Lance Berkman have carried the load, leading the NL in batting. The pitching for St. Louis has been great, getting a combined 18 wins from Kyle Lohse, Kyle McClellan and Jaime Garcia.
4. Florida Marlins (30-21) – The Florida Marlins are in second place in the National League East, but if the postseason started today – they would be in as the National League Wildcard representative. The Marlins are 30-21 on the season, two games behind Philadelphia. The Marlins have a league best 16-9 road record on the season. Florida's pitching has been pretty solid on the year, recording a 3.31 earned run average; which is sixth in MLB. Josh Johnson's 1.64 leads the team.
5. Boston Red Sox (30-22) – The Boston Red Sox, after a terrible start to the 2011 season have moved up to one of the top teams in Major League Baseball. The Red Sox have won eight of their last ten games, and five straight overall. The Red Sox have scored 249 runs, which is fourth in MLB, and also hold a.270 batting average. Adrian Gonzalez has been a great pick-up so far, batting.333, with an AL leading 45 runs batted in. The Red Sox have seen Jon Lester lead the league with 7 wins through the early part of the season.
6. New York Yankees (28-23) – The New York Yankees are the top scoring team in the American League; with 264 runs. The Yankees avoided the sweep at the hands of the Seattle Mariners with a win on Sunday. The Yankees are in second place in the American League East; behind the Boston Red Sox. Curtis Granderson has been the key for New York, with a.282 batting average, 16 homeruns and 37 runs batted in. The Yankees pitching has been anchored by the six wins from CC Sabathia and an ERA under 3.
7. Tampa Bay Rays (28-24) – The third team out of the American League East is the Tampa Bay Rays. After playing real well for a couple weeks, the rays have fallen back a little since then. The Rays finished a weekend series with Cleveland, blanking them 7-0. The Rays are led in offense by Matt Joyce, with his .365 batting average, along with 8 homeruns. Tampa Bay is batting .245 as a team, which is just 20th in the league. Tampa Bay's pitching ranks 10th in baseball, with a 3.53 earned run average, led by James Shields and his 2.15.
8. Milwaukee Brewers (29-24) – The Milwaukee Brewers have been red-hot and moved to second place in the National League Central. Milwaukee won out of nine on their recent home stand. Overall, Milwaukee has won eight of their last ten games. The Brewers are 2.5 games behind the Cardinals, and now head into a big series with the Cincinnati Reds during the week. Ryan Braun has been red-hot for the Brewers, batting .320 with 12 homeruns. Milwaukee's pitching has continued to be sensational, led by Yovani Gollardo, Shaun Marcum and Zack Greinke.
9. Atlanta Braves (29-24) – The Atlanta Braves have moved to five games above.500 on the season, and making a push towards second place in the National League East. Atlanta is just four games behind Philadelphia in divisional play. The Braves are led by Brian McCann and his .295 batting average, along with Martin Prado's 30 runs batted in and 29 runs scored. Atlanta's pitching has been led by Jair Jurrjens, who came into Sunday Night's game with six wins and a 1.56 earned run average.
10. Arizona Diamondbacks (29-24) – The hottest team in Major League Baseball is the Arizona Diamondbacks. The Diamondbacks have taken over the top spot in the National League West with their six game winning streak. The Diamondbacks have also won nine of their last ten overall. Arizona is the sixth highest scoring team in the league, with 239 runs scored. The Diamondbacks offense has seen Justin Upton hit 9 homeruns and Chris Young drive home 29 runs.
11. San Francisco Giants (28-24) – The Giants lost their All-Star catcher Buster Posey to a collision at home plate. That hurts, especially with Pablo Sandoval also being out. The Giants are one of the worst offensive teams in the league; scoring just 177 runs on the season. San Francisco's leading offensive player now is Freddie Sanchez, with his .302 batting average. The pitching for San Francisco is what has kept them above water, fourth in earned run average and quality starts. The Giants top pitcher – Tim Lincecum has five wins, with a 3.22 earned run average.
12. Texas Rangers (28-25) – The defending American League champions are looking to find a way to get back to a consistent winning track. The Rangers are one game ahead in the American League West, despite several key injuries. The offense for Texas has seen both Nelson Cruz and Josh Hamilton miss time with injuries. The Rangers are ninth in baseball with 234 runs scored, and also ninth with a.257 batting average. Texas has seen Adrian Beltre provide the power source for the offense, with 11 homeruns and 41 runs batted in.
13. Toronto Blue Jays (27-26) – The Toronto Blue Jays are one game over.500 on the season and just 3.5 games out of first place. The Blue Jays offense has been spurred by homerun leader Jose Bautista. The third base men has cracked 20 homeruns and drove home 36 runs, all while batting.350. Bautista is a candidate for Triple Crown in the American League this season. The Blue Jays are looking to get better starting pitcher, as they have just 24 quality starts, which ranks 26th in all of baseball.
14. Cincinnati Reds (27-26) – The Cincinnati Reds have hit a major bump in the road, coming into Sunday night's game, they had won just two of nine games on their road trip. The Reds are just one game above.500 on the season and 4.5 games behind the first place St. Petersburg. Louis Cardinals. Cincinnati has been good offensively, as they lead the league in runs, and are near the top in batting average. Jay Bruce has provided the power supply for the Reds, leading the NL in homeruns. Cincinnati will start a big three game series with the Milwaukee Brewers on Monday.
15. Los Angeles Angels (28-27) – At one game below.500, the Los Angeles Angels are also one game behind the first place Texas Rangers. The Angels, after being shut-out on Saturday came back with a win over Minnesota on Sunday. The Angels offense has been anchored by Howie Kendrick and his.322 batting average, and 30 runs scored. Los Angeles has seen great starting pitching from Jered Weaver, with six wins and a 2.10 earned run average.
16. Detroit Tigers (25-26) – The Detroit Tigers are lurking right around the.500 mark on the season, trying to keep pace with the red-hot Cleveland Indians. The Tigers have seen their stars in Miguel Cabrera and Justin Verlander lead the way. Cabrera is batting.311 with 9 homeruns and 35 runs batted in. On the other side, Verlander has a 3.42 earned run average and 73 strikeouts. The Tigers have 30 quality starts from their pitching staff.
17. Seattle Mariners (26-26) – After winning eight of their last ten games, the Seattle Mariners have climbed back to.500. The Mariners have also made a push in the American League West; the most competitive division in baseball. Seattle still has all sorts of problems offensive, as they are batting.233 as a team, and have scored just 185 runs on the season. Seattle's top offensive player has been Brendan Ryan, as he has a.277 batting average. The Seattle starting pitching staff has 31 quality starts, led by Felix Hernandez and Michael Pineda.
18. Oakland Athletics (27-27) – Oakland is also another team that has made a move in the American League West. The Athletics are one of the lowest scoring teams in the league, but have allowed the least amount of runs as well. Oakland has a 2.82 earned run average, and also 37 quality starts as a staff. The top starting pitcher for the Athletics has been Trevor Cahill, with six wins and a 2.02 earned run average. Oakland's top offensive player has been Coco Crisp, with a.272 batting average.
19. Colorado Rockies (25-27) – The Colorado Rockies are in a major slump. The Rockies have fallen to two games below.500 and 3.5 games out of first place. The Rockies have lost eight of their last ten games. On Saturday, Colorado scored 15 runs, but then slowed down by St.. Louis on Sunday. The Rockies have seen Todd Helton bat.303 to lead the team. The team is batting.244, which is 23rd in the league. Colorado took a big blow when they saw one of their starting pitchers; Jorge DeLaRosa go out for the season with an injury. Colorado would also like to get Ubaldo Jimenez back on track, as he has not won a game all season long.
20. Baltimore Orioles (24-27) – Baltimore is in last place in the American League East, but are just 5.5 games out of first place. The Orioles feel they are one hot streak away from being contenders in the division. Baltimore has seen their designated hitter Vladimir Guerrero bat.300 to lead the way. The offense also has seen Adam Jones crack 6 homeruns, drive home 29 runs and score 26 runs. The Orioles as a team are batting.251. The pitching for Baltimore has an earned run average of 4.43, which is 20th in all of baseball.
21. Pittsburgh Pirates (24-27) – The Pittsburgh Pirates, at 24-28, are in fourth place in the National League Central. The Pirates are 6.5 games behind St. Louis in the division. The Pirates have scored 191 runs, while allowing 198. The top offensive player for Pittsburgh has been Neil Walker, with a.266 batting average. As a team, Pittsburgh is batting.236, which is 26th in baseball. The Pirates Kevin Correia leads the team, and the league with 7 wins.
22. New York Mets (22-28) – The New York Mets can not seem to find any consistency in the win column. The Mets did avoid a three game sweep at the hands of the Phillies on Sunday, but are still 8.5 games behind Philadelphia. The Mets pitching has been really bad, with just 22 starts, second worst in all of baseball. The offense for the Mets has been led by Jose Reyes, who is being discussed in trade talks. Reyes is batting.335, while Carlos Beltran has provided the power with 8 homeruns and 28 runs batted in.
23. Chicago Cubs (23-28) – The Chicago Cubs are having a tough time finding starting pitches that can stay in the rotation. The addition of Rodrigo Lopez last week showed the Cubs where they stand in terms of their rotation. The Cubs are in fifth place in the National League Central; 7.5 games behind the St. George Louis Cardinals. The Cubs are second in the league in batting with a.275, led by Starlin Castro and his.318 batting average. Alfonso Soriano has hit 12 homeruns and 29 runs batted in, both team leading. Chicago is last in Major League Baseball in quality starts, with just 16.
24. Kansas City Royals (23-29) – After a hot start, the Kansas City Royals can not seem to find ways to get back into the win column. Kansas City has lost seven of their last ten games, including two straight to Texas. The Royals are in third place in the American League Central; nine games behind Cleveland. The Royals are sixth in baseball with a.259 batting average. Wilson Betemit leads the way with a.311 batting average.
25. Los Angeles Dodgers (24-30) – The Los Angeles Dodgers have been a major disappointment in a National League West, which has been sub-par as of best. The Dodgers are 24-30 overall, which places them in fourth place in the National League West. Los Angeles has been outscored 226 – 187 on the season. The two keys for the Dodgers offense have been Andre Ethier and Matt Kemp. Ethier is battting 3.26, while Kemp has hit 12 homeruns and 35 runs batted in. The Dodgers, who usually have sensational pitching, have seen a team earned run average of 4.07, which is 22nd in baseball.
26. San Diego Padres (22-31) – One of the worst offensive teams in the league – the San Diego Padres. The Padres have scored just 179 runs on the season. After losing Adrian Gonzalez during the off-season, Chase Headley and Cameron Maybin have joined Ryan Ludwick as the keys on the offside side. The Padres are last, or second to last in all major offensive categories. The Padres are in last place in the National Leagues West; 7.5 games behind the first place Arizona Diamondbacks.
27. Washington Nationals (22-30) – The Washington Nationals are in the middle of a free-falling time of the season. Washington has lost eight of their last ten games to fall into the basement, alone in the National League East. Currently, Washington is 10.5 games behind Philadelphia. The Nationals are batting.227, which is only better than San Diego in all of baseball. Washington's big free agent signing Jayson Werth leads the team, but is batting just.255, and has hit just 8 homeruns. The Nationals rank 12th in baseball with 30 quality starts, led by Jason Marquis and Livan Hernandez.
28. Chicago White Sox (24-31) – The Chicago White Sox have been the most disappointing team out of the American League. The White Sox are thankful for the Twins, or they would have the worst record in the league. The heat is on manager Ozzie Guillen, who may be fired before the season is over. After the White Sox were swept by Toronto on Sunday, Guillen went off on one of his profanity laced tirades. The White Sox are struggling both at the plate and on the mound. Chicago is batting.248 as a team, but hold a 3.92 earned run average.
29. Houston Astros (19-34) – The Houston Astros, at the bottom of the National League Central have the worst run differential in the National League. Houston was unable to slow down Arizona over the weekend, in a sweep. The Astros have been able to get on base, with their.258 batting average, but are struggling to score – 207 runs. The Astros pitching staff has been horrible, with a 4.63 earned run average. The Astros are allowing teams to bat nearly.280 against their pitchers.
30. Minnesota Twins (17-34) – The worst team in Major League Baseball – the Minnesota Twins. The Twins are 17-34 on the season, at the bottom of the American League Central. Minnesota has allowed 264 runs, and ranked just 175 on the season. Minnesota is still without their slugging catcher Joe Mauer. Jason Kubel has been the top offensive player for Minnesota, leading the team with a.305 batting average, along with 5 homeruns and 29 runs batted in. The Twins have the worst team ERA in baseball, at 4.76.
Source by Kevin T. Anderson
Real estate has several unique characteristics that affect its value. There are economic characteristics and physical characteristics. Real estate is a product to be purchased but it is different from anything else due to the characteristics that will be discussed here.
The economic characteristics that influence value are scarcity, improvements, permanence and area preference. Scarcity is simply demonstrated in the saying, “They aren’t making any more.” The supply of land has a ceiling and cannot be produced more than what exists today. This value of this supply however, is influenced by other characteristics.
Improvements, such as buildings on one parcel of land may have an effect on the value of neighboring parcels or the entire community. If a large company builds in a certain depressed neighborhood, the value of living their will probably increase because of the introduction of jobs. This value would impact on neighboring communities, thus increasing value in some ways to the real estate in these areas.
Permanence has to do with the infrastructure. As buildings, houses or other structures are demolished, the infrastructure, such as sewers, drainage, electricity, and water remain intact. Permanence effects real estate, or the type of infrastructure. If you buy a piece of land in an area with no utilities, drainage or paved streets, it will most likely be worth less than a parcel of land that has this infrastructure intact and developed.
Area preference refers to the choices of the people in any given area. This is usually referred to by most people when they talk about real estate as, “location, location, location.” The location of a preferred area, for whatever reasons, is what makes values of homes higher. Conversely, the location of a nonpreferred area, for whatever reason, is what makes the values of homes less. 8000 square foot brand new homes on the coast of Long Island’s, East Hampton will be worth much more due to their area preference, over an area with 1200 square foot starter homes in the middle of Long Island, located next to a garbage dump.
The physical characteristics of land represent its indestructible nature, immobility and nonhomogeneity. Working backwards, we’ll start with nonhomogeneity. This simply points out that no two parcels are the same. Two pieces of land may be very similar, but every single parcel is different geographically because each parcel is located in a different spot. This includes two lots right next to each other. It is important to remember that parcels are created by subdividing land, so as one large parcel of 20 acres is subdivided, each individual lot becomes its own separate piece of land.
Land cannot be moved, therefore it is immobile. Even when soil is torn from the ground, the part of the Earth’s surface will always remain. It is important here to note how this physical characteristic affects real estate law and markets. Immobility of land is the reason why real estate laws and markets are local in nature.
The indestructibility of land simply means that it is durable and cannot be destroyed. It can be damaged by storms and other disasters, but it remains and weathers the changing times and will always be there. This is a main reason why land is talked about as being a sound investment.
So the basic characteristics of real estate include scarcity, improvements to the land, permanence, area preference, nonhomogeneity, indestructibility and immobility. Please note there is a big difference between land and real estate. Land is the the part of the earths surface, subsurface and air above it. Real estate is anything that becomes attached to land. So when you’re looking for investments, it is important to note the infrastructure of the area, the surrounding neighborhood and the preferences of the area or…location, location, location!
Source by Thomas McGiveron
Following a recent five-day trip aboard our trawler where we had to frequently start up the genset to provide electricity to the 115 volt AC freezer to maintain temperatures, I began to mull over options. We put in an excess of ninety hours on the vessel generator in only five days; time for another oil change! I put in an inverter soon thereafter and that improved the run time for the generator drastically, but there was still work to be completed. I nonetheless needed to keep the batteries fully charged to operate the inverter. Then it occurred to me, why not explore solar panels for use aboard our yacht. Solar panels have been successfully utilized since the mid 1950s, originally utilized in manned space exploration. They have been dropping in cost since rough 2004 when their popularity really went up. And now with the Green pressure going on, solar panels are as accepted as ever. So I committed to delve into them and find out how to purchase and mount one; I was in for a big surprise. You can come across many retail vendors over the internet that will sell you a solar panel but now could I locate a detailed description of how to determine what to buy and how to install it; much less on board a yacht. So this piece was written as I made my way through the progress; therefore is a really a learn-as-you-go article.
What Exactly is a Solar Panel and How Do They Work?
Solar panels are basically any panel that makes use of the sun's thermal energy to create electricity. A solar panel can be described as a photovoltaic panel, the name used in the business, for panels intended to create electrical energy from the emission of the sun. Despite the group of solar panel being discussed, almost all solar panels are flat. This is because the surface of the panel needs to be at a 90 degree incline from the sun's rays for the best angle to soak up the sun's rays. Solar panels are able to absorb energy from the sun through a collection of solar cells on their surface. Very similar to how a plant is able to take in energy from the sun for photosynthesis, solar cells function in a comparable way. As the sun's rays hit the solar cells on a photovoltaic panel, the energy is transferred to a silicon semiconductor. The power is then changed into (dc) direct current electrical energy and then passed through connecting wires to extremely enter a storage battery.
Kinds of Solar Panels
Types of panels most commonly used in yachting uses either have multicrystalline or amorphous thin-film cells. Multicrystalline panels are the oldest technology obtainable and in addition the strongest. When sized correctly and paired with suitable batteries, these are the panels to make use of for operating large loads such as refrigeration.
Amorphous thin film solar panels are only about 50% as effective as multicrystalline panels, but can be bought in flexible varieties so they can roll or fold, or change to the shape of a boat cabin top or bimini. They do not often have adequate yield for considerable energy replenishment, but can be used to lightly charge a battery bank.
How Much Power Can Solar Cells Make?
Normally, we measure solar panels by wattage and that is how we buy them. You can get solar panels for boats as small as 10 watts to as great as 200 watts or even larger. But it is simpler to understand when we change watts to amperage. We calculate these values by multiplying the number of hours the panel is in full sun (usually defined as 5 a day in Florida) by the panel's wattage. For a 195 watt solar panel the amount produced would be 195 x 5 hrs = 975 watts / day. We can then figure, 975 watts / 12 volts = 81.25 amps per day.
Before considering which size panel to purchase for your boat, you will need to complete an energy budget to ascertain what sources of power consumption you have aboard while at anchor. I use the at anchor scenario as this is the place you will use the most energy; under power and your trawler can supply its needs without any issues.
Example, if you have 3 inside lights that pull 2 amps each and you keep them on for 4 hours per night, your consumption would be 3 x 2 x 4 = 24 AH / Day. We are not concerned by running lights and electronics as they will not likely be running while at anchor.
DC Loads – calculate how many amps hours are used by each appliance
Fresh Water Pump
Inverter loads also make use of DC power but they are powering AC appliances and equipment. If you want to change watts to amps use (12watts / 12 volts = 1amp).
Calculate the amp hours used by each appliance
Add up your overall daily energy use AH / per day
Solar Energy Creation
Different sources of power similar to solar panels can replace the amp / hrs dropped from the batteries. But similar to the power budget that determined your usage you will also need to compute your re-supply of amp hours. Keep in mind the formula – (12 watts / 12 volts = 1 amp). But be mindful, the formula is only a gauge; complete accuracy can only be where the panel production is constant and a solar panel may at times function ineffectually due to cloudy skies. Compare the day by day power use in AH / Day to the solar power creation. Your solar energy production must be larger than the use. If it is not, pick a larger wattage panel and recalculate. Always purchase more solar panel output than you think you will need; some professionals recommend at least 30% in excess.
Case in point – 100 watt solar panel / 12 volts = 8.3 amp x 5 hours = 41.66 AH / Day production
Installing Your Solar Panel
Now that you have got your solar panel, where do you put it on board your yacht? As we mentioned before, installing the panel ninety degrees to the sun is best. You will get the best power production this way. But on yachts, finding a fitting spot is tricky at best. A number of boaters put them on brackets placed on the rails, others position them on top of the bimini, and I have seen them positioned on the trawler dingy stanchions. But when you decide to mount them, bear in mind that to get the most out of them they bought to be in the open, away from any shading from booms, vessel radar arches, or cabin structures. Bear in mind that while at anchor, the boat will turn to the sun twice daily because of the tides. I opted to mount our panel on the top of the boat back deck hardtop in a horizontal position. Here it will get the greatest view of the sun and be clear from the radar arch shade as the boat swings at anchor. The slope toward the sun is not necessarily at ninety degrees but it will have to do. I selected a 195 watt panel so I get almost a 50% reserve ability in my panel to compensate for the small inefficiency of the sun's angle. We got the panel from Sun Electronics in Miami ,unelec.com as they had the best prices I could find anywhere on the web. But bear in mind, panels must be shipped using freight as they are heavily packed to reduce the chance of damage so be sure to calculate those expenses in your acquisition.
What is the best way to attach the panel to your vessel?
There are a variety of manufacturers of solar panel mounting rails and supports but almost all of them are made for roof or ground mounting. West Marine does carry a product for mounting small panels to the rails. A good number of boaters make their own mounts. I found a mount developed by Sunsei known as a Sunsei Glue Mounting Kit that is attached to the vessel and panel using 3M 5200 Marine Adhesive. The mount allows the panel to be installed with about 2 inches of space benefit the panel for aeration. I did not need to drill any holes in the hardtop either. You can locate these mounts at amazon.com.
Wiring Your Panel
Marine electrical wiring is incredibly specialized and hazardous; If you are not comfortable in performing this part of the task, please check with an experienced marine electrician. Your panel will be prewired for attaching to your vessel but you will need to provide the connecting cables that will also be sold by your panel provider; they are known as MC4 cables. The cables will be made in different lengths appropriate for your needs with a male and female connector affixed; you cut one connector off.
In addition, you will also require a controller. The controller regulates the power stream from the panel to your batteries keeping your batteries charged yet stopping over charging. A number of controllers are easy but others have LED displays indicating the amount of charge etc. The more fancy features the more cost it will be. Your panel dealer will be able to suggest a controller that will satisfy your needs. I chose a controller developed by Specialty Concepts. It is straightforward but does the job. And the people at the company are a big help in helping you to select the best model for your panel. When you get in touch with them, they will want to understand which size panel (wattage) you own and what the voltage is. Check them out at specialtyconcepts.com. I also got my controller from the individuals at Sun Electronics in Miami.
The individuals at Special Concepts have also calculated how heat will have an effect on current flow and suggest that their controllers will not be placed in engine rooms as the heat produced will diminish the controller effectiveness by roughly 25%. I put mine in the electrical panel under the lower helm. And finally, you will require the correctly sized cables to go from the controller to your batteries and a fuse to connect the controller to the battery bank. In deciding on the correct fuse, you need to locate the short circuit current for your panel and rate the breaker at 125% of that number. This will give you the amperage of the breaker you will need. Your controller operating manual will have information on these too.
Owning a solar panel to preserve your batteries would seem like a great plan but you'll want to have a way to keep an eye on your batteries. I opted to also install a Trimetric 2025RV Battery Monitor; bogartengineering.com. This smart device is wired into your battery bank to provide a genuine measurement of voltage going in to the bank, amps being used by your yacht, the percent full charge on the bank, and the amp hours used from the last charge.
So we have now installed a 195 watt solar panel in addition to an 1800 watt inverter and a battery bank with 443 amp hours. We ran our tests this week on the hook with clear skies. I concluded that our energy consumption is 112.5 amp hours per day. The freezer is the major draw using 60 of the amp hours followed by the refrigerator. Did you know that a standard anchor light pulls 18 amp hours each night? I think I'll check out LED bulbs now.
The battery monitor indicated that our actual draw from the battery bank was merely 65 amp hours which indicates we received the remaining from the sunlight, an entire 42% was from the sun. Now we will turn on the genset for around an hour to bring the battery bank up to complete charge.
Source by Michael W. Dickens
So, you have been approached by a merchant service company who is promoting you a better rate on your credit card processing. Should you switch? Well hold on, not so fast. There is more at stake than just price and often the price quoted is not the real price. Before you switch over ask the following questions.
1. Do you provide local service and support?
If you are in the retail industry then local support is essential. What are you going to do if your equipment goes down? Industries like retail, restaurants and lodging depend on their credit card equipment and can not afford to say "sorry, we are not accepting credit / debit cards at this time." Waiting even a couple of days for new equipment will have a significant affect on the bottom line. A company that offers local support is more likely to have you up and running in a few hours instead of a few days.
2. How long have you been in business?
Unfortunately, the credit card industry is still an unregulated industry. Anybody can start a merchant service business. They get together and form a company and go to one of the big players in the credit card processing industry and buy a rate and then they take that rate and mark it up and resell it to you the merchant. They are known as ISO's (Independent Sales Organizations) and go unregulated. It is always best to find a company that is direct with Visa / MC and not a reseller of services. Make sure you are dealing with a company that has a good track record and always ask for referrals.
3. Are your merchant statements easy to understand?
Most of the merchant statements that I see in the marketplace seem to be written to either hide the true rate the merchant is paying or just too complicated for the average person to read and understand. Ask to see a copy of the company's statement and have the sales representative walk you through it. Is it formatted so that it is easy to read? If so, you probably have a good company to work with.
4. Do you offer a variety of equipment to meet my needs?
There are many options for processing credit / debit cards today. There is no one size fits all solution, so make sure that the company you are dealing with has the equipment to meet your needs. Often times they can reprogram your existing equipment that you already own, but if it is a few years old you should upgrade to take advantage of the latest encryption and security features.
5. Should I lease or buy new equipment?
There are advantages to both, however do not get trapped into leasing overpriced equipment for way too long. I usually recommend to my clients to purchase the equipment over a six month time frame and most good companies will do this interest free. If the company you are looking to switch to can reprogram existing equipment, then you might even look into buying used equipment on the internet at a reduced cost.
6. Do I have to wait until the end of the month to check my deposits?
Most of the larger merchant service companies offer you a way to check transactions and deposits online. You can even go back in time and check historical data. Your accountant will love that.
7. What other services does your company offer?
Today's marketplace is very competitive and some of the larger merchant service companies are branching out to offer a variety of services. These services can often help grow your business, save money and reduce liabilities. They may offer payroll services or electronic check processing or other services that when bundled together can save your company money and improve its bottom line.
Source by W. Edmund Dykes, II
I'm writing this guide after being asked a few times on ways to connect a laptop to a TV. People want to achieve this for several reasons. First, it's great for presentations at work, school, or home. It's also convenient for viewing pictures and videos to friends, watching DVDs, and it is now even being used for viewing Blu-ray and other high definition content on the HDTV.
First, we want to make sure you're getting the most out of your laptop when it comes to displaying it on the TV.
- If you have an HDTV with HDMI inputs, check if your laptop has an HDMI output. If it does, you're in luck! Your HDTV can display from your laptop in HD resolutions. All you need is an HDMI cable to connect them. If your HDTVs HDMI inputs are used up already. An HDMI switch would be the best solution for you. We supply switches that can connect up to 5 different HDMI sources to 1 HDMI input.
- If you do not have an HDMI output on the laptop, check if it has a DVI output. Some ASUS, and Dell laptops have them. If you do, you can connect your laptop to an HDTV with an HDMI to DVI cable. They are both digital cables so this will produce the same HD resolutions as a standard HDMI cable.
- If your laptop does not have HDMI or DVI out, it should have a VGA output. Connecting with VGA is capable of high resolutions. However, different TVs support different resolutions with VGA. You must check the maximum resolution your TV model supports with VGA.
- Pretty much all laptops come with an S-Video output. It's not going to be as great of a picture, but it will certainly do the job with an S-Video cable.
After you have connected your chosen cable, boot up your laptop and see if it has detected your TV. If not, you have to go into your display properties and look for the settings that will enable your TV to display from your laptop. Where to find the setting will vary depending on your graphics card (just look around). If you are having trouble getting your TV to show a picture, make sure you have updated the display drivers on your laptop. Now you're probably going to want sound from something other than your laptop speakers. So you can choose to output it to your TV, or blast it from your home theater audio receiver.
- The best way to connect audio to your TV or receiver is through a digital audio cable. Both a digital coaxial cable or Toslink optical audio cable will work great for crisp high quality audio. Just make sure your laptop has either a digital coaxial or an optical audio output. Some laptops use the headphone jack to double as a digital coaxial (S / PDIF) output. If you use this method, your going to need a 3.5mm to RCA adapter with a digital coaxial cable. If your laptop has none of these outputs and you still really want that high quality sound. Do not worry! You can still get an external (USB) sound card that has digital coaxial out or optical out. I recommend the Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi Surround 5.1 SB1090 with Toslink Optical audio out.
- Another way, which will not require any add-ons, is to use the headphone (3.5mm) jack on your laptop to the RCA (red and white) inputs on your TV or receiver. To do this, all you need is a 3.5mm to 2 RCA adapter with a 2 RCA audio cable.
I know all of these cables can seem confusing to you. If you're having trouble finding out what each cable looks like or find out more about a cable, check out the Cable Guide at CableTrain.com . All of these cables are available for you on our website as well. I hope you can now successfully connect your laptop to the TV in the best way possible!
Source by Carter Boatright